Author Archive
Customs
Festival
Game
Holidays
Rituals, festivals, holidays

Passover Seder Meals

Main Piece: Everything we eat in Pesach has a special meaning behind it. We eat an egg, a lamb bone, bitter vegetable herbs and fruits and nuts, all because it reminds of the deeds of good Moshe. The lamb represents the sacrifice of a goat that was offered at the Holy Temple, for which Moshe was responsible. The fruits and nuts are the mortar that our people used to build storage houses for Pharaoh. The egg, which is hard boiled, was eaten on the first Pesach Seder that took place in the Holy Temple after the sacrifice. We also sacrificed a chicken for the Lord, and ate the egg it laid behind to remind ourselves of our connection to Him. Finally, there’s the matza, the most important of all the meals. Bread with no yeast. The meal of our people for 40 years in the desert. When we eat it, we are reminded of the suffering and dedication of Moshe and the slaves that gave the Holy Land back to us. At the end of the night, we have a little game where the elders hide the matza in some place of the house and the children look for it. Whoever finds it first gets money from the grandparents, and they get to eat it. I don’t know if it has a deeper meaning behind it, but it was my way of keeping the children up for the entire thing. It’s very important to me that they celebrate the Seder with us and understand their history through our food and traditions.

Background information about the piece by the informant: Ethel is the matriarch of a Jewish family in Mexico City and always organizes the Seder dinners in her house. As she said, they are very important to her, as her grandchildren learn about their cultural history through it.

Context about the piece: Pesach, or Passover, celebrates the Biblical event in which Moses freed the Hebrew people from the slavery of Egypt. According to the Torah, they wandered 40 years in the desert before arriving to Canaan, or Israel, to build their Holy Temple.

Thoughts about the piece: Like many other Jewish festivities, it is celebrated and remembered through food. This goes on to show that the Jewish culinary tradition is not simply based on the ingredients available to the culture, but is rather strongly tied to the significance of their traditions. The game of the mazta in the end gives an interactive aspect to the Seder, which involves the younger participants of the ritual and draws in the younger generations to continue the tradition.

 

Folk speech
Riddle

Argentine Riddle

Main piece:

  1. Q: Lana sube, lana baja. Qué es?

La navaja.

  1. Wool up, wool down. What is it?

The knife.

  1. Wool goes up, wool goes down. What is it?

The knife.

Background information about the piece by the informant: Emanuel was born and raised in Argentina, where this is a common joke riddle. He says it is exclusively Argentinian, as it can only be understood in Spanish being a play on words, and can only be funny in Argentina, as its humor is very specific to the country.

Context on the piece: This is an innocent joke riddle in which the answer is much more simpler than what is expected. In Spanish “Wool goes down” is “Lana baja”, which sounds like “La Navaja”, meaning “The knife”. The audience is supposed to break their heads finding a hidden meaning in the ambiguous question, while the answer is an obvious play on words. It’s a classic “it was so simple the whole time” joke. This makes the person trying to give an answer seem dumb for not knowing such a simple question, so the comedy if for the performer instead of the audience, as he gets to make fun of the person trying to give the answer.

Thoughts on the piece: Emanuel claims the riddle can only work for Argentine sensibilities, which can tell us that this is a society of pranksters who enjoy simple jokes. This joke could be either for kids or adults due to its simplicity and inoffensive nature, despite its point being leaving a person dumbfounded. It also creates a strong sense of community when only people who speak Spanish in Argentine can get the joke.

Folk Beliefs
Folk speech
Legends
Narrative
Signs

Jotos and 41s

Main Piece: In Spain, they call gay people “Jotos” because of a jail cell. Jail cells are either numbered or labeled by a letter , and until recently, when gay people went to jail they used to put them in cell “J”. Don’t ask me why, ‘casue I don’t know, that’s just the way it was. Now cells are numbered with much more complicated digits because of the increasing number of criminals, but back then, the cells had normal numbers to label them: 1, 2, 3… Again, they used to put gays in cell 41, maybe to keep them away from everyone else. That’s why 41 is the gay number in Spain. It’s like when people in America laugh when someone uses the number 69. If someone says the number 41 or something, it’s pretty funny here. And not only that. In some of the most conservative parts of the country, the number is seen as obscene, and some hotels even take it out of its room numbers, like the number 13. That’s why if you’re gay, the call you a Joto or a 41. It could be used both as an insult or a sign of affection, but they can call you this even if you’re not gay as an insult.

Background information about the piece by the informant: Jordi was raised in Mexico and resides in Madrid and claims to hear people being called Jotos and 41s on a daily basis. He knew that Jotos were gay people because they are also called that way in Mexico, but didn’t know about the 41s. He asked about that to one of his close friends, who told him the story.

Context on the piece: Although there is no recorded reason to why gay people are called Jotos (Jota is the Spanish pronunciation of the letter “J”), there is one about the number 41, which actually originated in Mexico. Apparently, in 1901, there was raid in which 41 men were detained for showing up in women’s clothing. This was reported by the contemporary press and became a scandal during the conservative years of president Porfirio Diaz. The new reached Spain and they adopted the insult.

Thoughts on the piece: Considering the recorded history of using 41 as an insult for homosexuals, it shows how history still has an effects on the present. This is something that happened over 100 years ago, and not only that, but people in Spain have adopted the insult and gave it their own story. To goes to show how the folk from a culture can appropriate even insults to serve their own purposes, and as Jordi says, most of them believe that the term originated in Spain. Not everyone knows the story behind the terms though, showing the disregard of the history of certain words that might be offensive to an entire group because of their past which is also present in American culture.

Folk speech
Proverbs

Dite from Madrid

Main Piece:

  1. Como cuando Franco.
  2. Like when Franco.
  3. Just like when Franco was here.

Background information about the piece by the informant: Jordi lives in a predominantly right winged neighborhood in Madrid where the former military dictator Francisco Franco is considered a hero. Jordi finds the dite baffling, as he is amazed at how people can still support a known mass murderer and oppressor.

Context on the piece: This is a common saying for people who believe that Spain was better under Franco’s rule. It is said whenever something they consider to be good happening in their land, and it could be something as big as a political move or something as minimal as the weather. For example, if they think they are having a nice day, they might say “Just like when Franco was here”.

Thoughts on the piece: It’s fascinating to see how people from a land are so attached to the politics that perspired in there. In this case it makes even more sense, as Franco’s ideals were nationalistic and populist. Thus, it would it is understandable that these people that feel attached to their land and nation glorify Franco to such a degree, as he protected the ideals of the nation state.

general
Legends

The Golden Temple

Main Piece: One of the most beautiful buildings in Kyoto is the Golden Temple of Kinkaku-Jin. It is a small shrine to Buddha that is covered in golden leaf and sits on top of a pond, where its reflection is mirrored by the water. But this is not the original temple. This is a second temple that they constructed exactly the same as the first, because its beauty came with a curse. Many years ago, a young monk arrived to Kyoto and he fell in love with the beauty of the gold temple. He loved it as if it were a spouse; he stared at it for countless hours, he talked to it, and it made him feel closer to God. He loved it so much that he became jealous of all the other monks that prayed in the temple, and he became to be tortured by this jealousy. In time, the only thing he could think about was the beauty of the temple. He couldn’t eat or work or even pray; he became consumed by it. So, one day, he decided he couldn’t take it any longer. He lit a steak on fire and there it in the temple, which was immediately consumed by the flames. After there was nothing left of it, the monk tried killing himself with a sword, but he was stopped by the local authorities, who arrived because of the fire. When they asked him why he did it he told them that he “could not stand the beauty of the temple”.

Background information about the piece by the informant: Ga Hyun was born and raised in Tokyo Japan. She and her family heard this story this from locals when they visited the rebuilt Golden Temple. They gave her no specific names or dates.

Context on the piece: Historically, the building was burned down in 1950 by a 22-year-old monk who did try to commit suicide. The part of the story which gives it its status as a legend is the motives that the monk had for doing this. In reality, he was trialed on the accounts of mental illness, and there are no official documents in which he is recorded saying that he did it because he couldn’t stand its beauty.

Thoughts on the piece: The motive that the story gives to the monk for burning the temple shows an emphasis on the aesthetic beauty on the Temple. It makes me wonder if the story is not actually folklore, but rather a fakelore to attract tourists by using the beauty of the temple as a plot device.

Folk speech
Proverbs

Proverb from Cecina

Main Piece:  Better to have a death in the family than a guy from Pisa at the door.

Background information about the piece by the informant: Lorenzo was born in raised in Cecina, Italy, which is a small rural town in the Tuscan region. For unspecified reasons, the town has a rivalry with the town of Pisa, which is also in Tuscany. According to Lorenzo, part of the resentment comes form the fact the Pisa has “sold out”, becoming too indulgent to the tourists because of the famous “Leaning Tower” and loosing its original traditions to this. Lorenzo hates the use of this proverb as he sees it as intolerant, but it is common among his family members and colleges.

Context on the piece: The proverb is generally used to insult people from Pisa. It can also b used as a joke to lighten the mood when there is an actual family death.

Thoughts on the piece: It is interesting how one of the defining proverbs from Pisa is meant to specifically insult an entire group of people. It is the way of the people of Cecina to create bonds with each other, as they establish the “us” and “them” with proverbs like this. It also provides insight to how these locals see capitalised tourism, as they think that it ruins the authenticity of the region.

 

Musical

The Little Goat

Main Piece: Get out of the cave little goat. Get out of that place. Let’s go call the wolf, so that he gets the goat out of there.

The wolf doesn’t want to go for the goat and the goat doesn’t want to get out of there.

Get out of the cave little goat. Get out of that place. Let’s go call the stick, so that he beats the wolf.

The stick doesn’t want to beat the wolf, the wolf doesn’t want to go for the goat and the goat doesn’t want to get out of there.

Get out of the cave little goat. Get out of that place. Let’s go call the fire, so that he burns the stick.

The fire doesn’t want to burn the stick, the stick doesn’t want to beat the wolf, the wolf doesn’t want to go for the goat and the goat doesn’t want to get out of there.

Get out of the cave little goat. Get out of that place. Let’s go call the water, so that he wets the fire.

The water doesn’t want to wet the fire, the fire doesn’t want to burn the stick, the stick doesn’t want to beat the wolf, the wolf doesn’t want to go for the goat and the goat doesn’t want to get out of there.

Get out of the cave little goat. Get out of that place. Let’s go call the cow, so that she drinks the water.

The cow doesn’t want to drink the water, water doesn’t want to wet the fire, the fire doesn’t want to burn the stick, the stick doesn’t want to beat the wolf, the wolf doesn’t want to go for the goat and the goat doesn’t want to get out of there.

Get out of the cave little goat. Get out of that place. Let’s go call the farmer, so that he tames the cow.

The farmer wants to tame the cow, the cow wants to drink the water, water wants to wet the fire, the fire wants to burn the stick, the stick wants to beat the wolf, the wolf wants to go for the goat and the goat wants to get out of there.

And that’s how the little goat got out!

Background information about the piece by the informant: Daniela is a resident of Mexico City and this is a song that she remembers from her early childhood. She claims that her kindergarten used to make her and his classmates sing it.

Context on the piece: Although there are many variations to the song, it is popular for children in Mexico City. This type of song is popular in other countries and cultures. For example, Russia has “The Giant Turnip” about a turnip that doesn’t want to get out of the ground and the singers call on different characters to help it get out.

Thoughts on the piece: Despite it being used as a distraction for children, the song can show how individuals and cultures think of the idea of power. In this case, it is the human who is in power, as he is the one that makes a decision and gets every character to do their job in a chain reaction. This shows a high regard for humans in the culture, but there are versions of the song in where the chin gets to God and he makes everyone do his job. This would imply a more deist sensibility than this version of the song.

Childhood
Musical
Narrative
Tales /märchen

Kolobok: The Little Round Bun

Main piece: Once upon a time there was an old man and an old housewife. The man demanded his wife to make him a bun from the flour box. And so, she swept out the bin and made some dough in the shape of a little round bun. She put in the oven for it to bake and then next to the window for it to cool. The bun jumped out the window and rolled along the road until he met with a Rabbit coming towards him. The Rabbit told him “I’m going to eat you little bun”, and in response the the bun sang him a song:

“I was scraped from the flour-box
And swept from the bin
And baked in the oven
And cooled on the sill.
I ran away from Grandpa,
I ran away from Grandma,
And I’ll run away from you, this minute I will!”

So the bun rolled away, until he saw a wolf coming at him. The wolf told him “I’m going to eat you little bun”, and so he sang again:

“I was scraped from the flour-box
And swept from the bin
And baked in the oven
And cooled on the sill.
I ran away from Grandpa,
I ran away from Grandma,
And I’ll run away from you, this minute I will!”

So the bun rolled away, until he met with a fox in front of him. The fox told him “I’m going to eat you little bun”, and so he sang to the fox:

“I was scraped from the flour-box
And swept from the bin
And baked in the oven
And cooled on the sill.
I ran away from Grandpa,
I ran away from Grandma,
And I’ll run away from you, this minute I will!”

The fox told him “Sing some more, please don’t stop! Hop onto my mouth so I can hear you better”. And so the bun jumped into the fox’s mouth and sang:

“I was scraped from the flour-box
And swept from the bin-

But before he could go on the fox closed his mouth and he gobbled up the little bun.

Background information about the piece by the informant: William Murawski is an American from Polish and Russian decent. His grandparents from Russia used to tell him tales and nursery rhymes from their hometown as a child. William is an aficionado of Russian folk tales and likes to tell preform them the same way as his grandparents performed them for him when he was a child.

Context on the performance: The tale is usually told to children. The song sang by the bun is told with a melody, which is why it is easy to remember verbatim.

Thoughts on piece: The seems more nonsensical than classic western European tales, as they usually have anthropomorphic animals, but rarely a simple object like a bun acting with human characteristics. The resolution of the story is also anti-climatic and dower, but it does provide children with a lesson, which is that one must not be overconfident on a victory like the bun did in the end, as well as the power of wit, as the fox showed. This shows that Russian folk tales are concerned with providing life lessons rather than having feel-good endings.

Proverbs

Mexican Proverb

Main Piece:

  1. Camarón que se duerme se lo lleva la corriente.
  2. Shrimp that sleeps is carried away by the water.
  3. A sleeping shrimp is swept away by the water.

Background information about the piece by the informant: Simon was born and raised in Mexico City, where this proverb is a very common saying. It dates back to before he was born in 1960, as he claims his father used to tell it to him,

Context on the performance: People recite this proverb to refer to a situation in which someone is distracted or not present and end up getting taken advantage if because of it. For example, if someone steals seats from someone when that person is not looking, it is common for the person who stole the seats to say this to the other person. Under that context, it is usually seen as an assertion of power, but it can also be used as a way to impart wisdom.

Thoughts on the piece: This proverb may tell us that Mexican culture believes that if opportunities are stolen from someone it is partially that person’s fault. It serves a reminder for people not to blame the circumstances, but to see the flaws within themselves. It also works as a way to tell people that they should be alert at all times if they don’t want to loose and opportunity.

Myths

The Bellybutton of Aphrodite

Main piece: Tortellini are probably the most famous and important dish from the Emilia-Romagna. They are basically small balls of meat wrapped up in pasta and then dipped in a chicken broth, and they also happen to look like bellybuttons. They are so delicious and iconic that they even have an origin story. Locals say that the goddess Aphrodite went to visit Bologna once. She went in disguise, so no one knew she was a goddess, but she was still beautiful as hell, so they treated her like a queen. They pampered her all they could and the one thing that she ended up liking the most about Bologna, like most people was the food. She stayed there eating for so long that she gained a few kilos, which would have usually enraged her but was so enchanted with the food that she could not get angry at the Bolognese. When it was time for her to leave, she wanted to leave them a present of gratitude, and since she wanted to loose weight from her stomach she gave them her bellybutton, which was the first Tortellini. If you ask anyone in any restaurant in Bologna they will tell you that’s how they were invented.

Background information about the piece by the informant: Ersilia was raised in Bologna, Italy, the capital of the Emilia-Romagna region. She is a food enthusiast and has an interest for folk stories. She learned this story first from her dad and claims that everyone in Bologna knows the story.

Context of the performance: I asked Ersilia if she knew of any stories about the folkloric local food from Italy. According to her, this story is popular in Bologna and most people will say that Tortellini come from the bellybutton of Aphrodite, even if there are variations to the story form person to person.

Thoughts on the piece: This story elevates the dish to mythological proportions. It is always a mystery how traditional dishes were created, since they cannot be traced back to a single author, so giving an origin to the Tortellini involved with divine intervention shows the value that the Bolognese give to their food. They treat it as a cornerstone of their culture, to the extent in which a single dish has a mythology behind it.

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